Testicular Pain

A minor injury to the testicles can cause outsized and prolonged pain. But discomfort can also result from health issues outside the testicles, such as kidney stones or hernias.

What is Testicular Pain?

Because the testicles are so sensitive, even a small injury can cause lasting pain or discomfort. However, the pain may originate outside the testicle, including the coiled tube and tissue behind it (the epididymis), the groin, or the abdomen. Kidney stones and hernias can cause testicle pain, for example.

What causes Testicular Pain?

Testicular pain may result from surgery, an injury, or a medical condition such as an infection. Among medical conditions:

  • Orchitis: Inflammation of one or both testicles. Bacterial infection is the most frequently cause of orchitis, and in some cases, sexually transmitted infections are the cause.
  • Epididymitis: Inflammation of the coiled tube, called the epididymis, at the back of the testicle that stores and carries sperm. Bacterial infection is the most frequent cause of epididymitis, and in some cases, sexually transmitted infections are the cause.
  • Diabetic neuropathy: Nerve damage caused by diabetes.
  • Varicocele: Enlarged veins in the scrotum.
  • Scrotal masses: A lump or bulge in the scrotum.
  • Prostatitis: A prostate infection.
  • Cancer: Abnormal cells grown out of control in the testes (less common than other causes of testicular pain).

What are the symptoms of Testicular Pain?

Since the cause of the pain varies widely, so can the symptoms.

In cases of bacterial orchitis, symptoms may include:

  • A swollen, red, or warm scrotum
  • Testicle pain and tenderness, usually on one side
  • Painful urination or a frequent need to urinate
  • Discharge from the penis
  • Painful intercourse or ejaculation
  • A lump on the testicle
  • Blood in the semen

In cases of testicular cancer, the primary symptom is a hard lump or enlargement in either testicle. In cases where there are other health conditions, such as kidney stones, pain persists for more than one week.

Men who experience ongoing pain, swelling, or a hard lump in the testicles or groin should see a physician.

How is Testicular Pain diagnosed?

A physician will perform a complete physical exam and may take blood, urine, and semen samples for testing.

How is Testicular Pain treated?

A doctor might provide specific tests, medications, or other instructions. If not, over-the-counter pain relievers can alleviate mild testicular pain. Also, an athletic supporter or folded towel can provide relief by elevating the scrotum while standing or lying down.

If cancer is present, a treatment plan will be determined based on the patient’s condition and the stage of the disease.